Original Research

An evaluation of eThekwini Municipality’s regeneration programmes on littering and dumping

Nirmala Govender, Purshottama S. Reddy
African Evaluation Journal | Vol 8, No 1 | a415 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aej.v8i1.415 | © 2020 Nirmala Govender, Purshottama S. Reddy | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 12 July 2019 | Published: 27 May 2020

About the author(s)

Nirmala Govender, School of Management, IT and Governance, Faculty of Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Purshottama S. Reddy, School of Management, IT and Governance, Faculty of Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

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Background: South African cities have been beleaguered with urban deterioration challenges, especially dumping and littering, notwithstanding the regulatory framework and the continuous clean-up programmes undertaken by municipalities. This article identifies the challenges within eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality in addressing littering and dumping, and recommends improvements towards urban regeneration efforts.

Objectives: To critically evaluate compliance of legislation and efficacy of the urban regeneration programmes implemented, which addressed littering and dumping within the inner city of eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality.

Method: This convergent mixed-method research followed a case study approach and involved the analysis of primary data obtained from a qualitative perspective, including semi-structured interviews and questionnaires; and secondary analysis of quantitative data in the form of documents and reports obtained from the municipality.

Results: The article identified that urban degeneration, specifically litter and dumping, occurred as a result of ineffective compliance of regulations and lack of enforcement; outdated service levels, lack of monitoring and evaluation of programmes; lack of education initiatives; ineffective leadership and governance; lack of involvement of citizens and businesses in clean city initiatives; and the negative behavioural patterns of citizens.

Conclusion: The key recommendations for municipalities include implementing an integrated strategic plan for urban regeneration within a proactive policy and regulatory environment; monitoring and evaluation of programmes related to urban regeneration; increased resources dedicated to waste management and enforcement; implementing enforcement and consequence management strategies; and stimulating change in the behaviour patterns of citizens, businesses as well as municipality employees.


urban degeneration; littering; dumping; by-laws; enforcement; waste management


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