Original Research

A descriptive narrative on the current situation against the gold standards regarding institutionalisation of national monitoring and evaluation system for Botswana and Zimbabwe

Panganai F. Makadzange
African Evaluation Journal | Vol 10, No 1 | a578 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aej.v10i1.578 | © 2022 Panganai F. Makadzange | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 03 August 2021 | Published: 05 August 2022

About the author(s)

Panganai F. Makadzange, Private, Gaborone, Botswana


Background: Literature demonstrates that when it comes to institutionalising national monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems, some African countries such as South Africa, Benin and Uganda are quite advanced. In the new millennium, more countries such as Zimbabwe and Botswana engaged in similar processes. However, there is still little documentation on such processes. This article thus attempts to bridge the documentation gap.

Objectives: To explore the current standing of Zimbabwe and Botswana against the gold standards of institutionalisation of national M&E systems.

Method: An exploratory study design was used to estimate the level of institutionalisation of the two national M&E systems. An International Atlas of Evaluation framework originally developed in year 2002, by three scholars namely Furubo, Rist and Sandahl was adopted as a guiding framework for the research. An online survey method was employed to gather the required quantitative data. Data analysis was carried out through the International Atlas of Evaluation assessment tool and the scores to determine the level of institutionalisation were generated. The output was displayed through graphs and tables.

Results: Overall, while Botswana received a score of 48% on the International Atlas of Evaluation scale, Zimbabwe got 53%. These scores indicate that the two countries have attained a rather average level of institutionalisation and are still lacking in terms of meeting the expected gold standards.

Conclusion: There is significant progress in both countries towards fully institutionalising their national M&E systems. However, more is yet to be realised before attaining the expected gold standards. It is recommended that both countries emulate and leverage on those African countries with much more advanced national M&E systems such as South Africa.


domains; framework; monitoring; evaluation; national; institutionalisation; reforms; Zimbabwe; Botswana


Total abstract views: 1408
Total article views: 1816


Crossref Citations

1. Growing and nurturing monitoring and evaluation on the African continent
Mark Abrahams
African Evaluation Journal  vol: 10  issue: 1  year: 2022  
doi: 10.4102/aej.v10i1.674